Expected word-count for substantive responses for numbers 1-9 is between 50-100 words. Provide references.:
1 Drugs that lead to dependency must first reinforce people behavior. Behavior is regularly followed by an appetitive stimulus. for many people initial substance use involves an element of impulsively, or acting without foresight or regard for the consequences (Carlson,2013). People start by experience in some like it in others may not. If they like it, they will most likely take it again. Importantly, positive or negative reinforcement need not be driven solely by the effects of the drug. The positive reinforcing effects of substance tend to diminish with repeated use. This is the tolerance and may lead to use of the substance in greater amounts. Addictive drugs have reinforcement’s effects. This activation strengthens the response that was just made. If the drug was taken by a fast-acting route such as injection or inhalation, the last response will be the act of taking the drug, so that response will be reinforced. Reinforcement is powerful and works with a wide variety of species ( Carlson,2013).
Carlson, N. R. (2013). Physiology of behavior. (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon
2 Positive reinforcement causes individuals to take drugs in the first place; if the drug makes them feel good they will continue to take it to get that positive feeling, this can lead to drug abuse. A person goes through withdrawal if they stop taking the drug they are addicted to and this is where negative reinforcement can come into play. The symptoms experienced through withdrawal are distressing, but once the individual takes the drug again the unpleasant symptoms of withdrawal go away, this produces negative reinforcement (Carlson, 2013).
Reference: Carlson, N. R. (2013). Physiology of behavior. (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
3 Negative reinforcement (taking away something negative) AND positive reinforcement (adding something positive) are at the heart of the addiction process. A good review from Simply Psychology on Skinner’s Box can be found at the following link which depicts these processes in rat research. Check it out at https://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html
4 Discuss some of the treatments options available for addictions. Describe how drugs such as methadone and buprenorphine are used to treat drug addiction. How do you feel about treating drug addiction with administering another drug? Explain your response. Bring in at least 1 reference to support your answer.
5 I decided to look up an inpatient drug and rehab center as a choice of treatment for addictions. Inpatient drug treatment facilities give the patient somewhere to stay that is safe and they cannot have access to the drug of choice. In WV they actually have a facility in a hospital setting where the patient can receive mental health services, and they specialize in dual diagnosis treatments (Rehab Center, 2018). I believe that the best treatment depends on the abuser and what they want. If they do not want to quit, they are not going to quit. They have to want it for themselves. I have never had experience with drugs or anyone that has abused them and the treatment they have received. I do feel that treating a drug with another drug is not the right answer especially because again the abuser has to want help.
Rehab Center, . (2018). 14 West Virginia Inpatient Alcohol and Drug Rehab Centers. Retrieved from
6 Do you believe that addiction is hereditary? Why or why not? How big of a role does nurture play in addictions? Provide examples. If you had to select one, which one would you say plays a larger role in additions, nature or nurture? Bring in a supplemental research article or reputable source to support your opinion.
7 I believe that nurture plays a big role in addictions. If parents raise a child in a way that provides him or her with positivity and the correct coping/problem solving skills, a child is less likely to fall into addiction. According to “The Great Debate: Nature Vs. Nurture; Genetics And Abuse”(2018), “Research has indicated that children who are raised by parents adopting the authoritative model of parenting tend to be more successful than their peers, when measured for self-image, academic success, or substance abuse (or lack thereof)” (Four Styles of Parenting).
Reference The Great Debate: Nature vs. Nurture; Genetics and Abuse(2018). Retrieved from https://americanaddictioncenters.org/adult-addiction-treatment-programs/nature-vs-nurture/
8 Modeling plays a huge role in addictions. I also find that it takes a team approach when treating and supporting an individual with an addiction. The team can be AA or NA, specialists who provide psychotherapy and medication management to those with addictions, and even a recovery center. What do folks think about having friends and family as part of this team? I wonder if the team should be family and friends given that family and friends are usually to first line of defense to burn out or are using drugs and alcohol as well? Thoughts? Are there other types of support people can recommend here?
9 Review the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) (2008) video and discuss how the use of alcohol effect pregnancy and brain development of the fetus. Discuss the kinds of long-term behavioral effects can result from fetal alcohol syndrome. Discuss the role prevention plays in FAS.
NIAAA (2008) FAS- The Biological Basis. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X9ap3Iimimk .