Counseling Theories Assignment Essay
Counseling theories are substantial as they help inexperienced counselors to interpret clients’ thoughts, behavior, and feelings through which a proper treatment plan is realized. There exist different types of counseling theories. The psychoanalysis theory explains how unconscious forces drive behavior, behavioral theories explain that behavior is learned, while cognitive theories explain how individuals’ thinking can change approaches and conduct. Besides, the humanistic theory elucidates that persons regulate their purposes which is realized by showing honesty, caution, and attention.Counseling Theories Assignment Essay
These theories are attributed to the works of Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, and Alfred Adler. According to Sigmund Freud, there exist unconscious forces that control individual behavior. According to Freud, an individual is born with id as it enables them to have their basic needs satisfied. For instance, if a child is hungry, their identity drives such a child to cry until their hunger is gratified. As the child keeps on growing and due to environmental interaction, the ego develops and aims at satisfying the identity but is considerate of other factors at hand (Deal, 2007). The superego also develops at the age of five years and is based on moral principles as it guides individuals on what is right or wrong.
According to Alfred Alder, all individuals are born with a sense of inferiority just like a newborn. That sense of inferiority is essential as it plays a significant role in pushing individuals to strive to become superior. Besides, birth order plays a crucial role in the development of individual personalities. For instance, firstborn children may develop an inferiority complex once other siblings are born (Deal, 2007). On the other hand, middle born children, due to lack of pampering, may develop a sense of superiority in an attempt to prove a point to the firstborn and last born. Therefore, they are likely to become successful in life compared to the last born who may feel powerless to influence the other siblings. This can be attributed to pampering from their parents.
Erik Erikson came up with the stages of psychosocial development. According to Erikson, children must develop the ability to trust others; failure to do so leads to the development of a sense of fear in later stages of life due to mistrust. Children must also develop independence to prevent them from suffering from doubt and guilt (Deal, 2007). The children must also develop a sense of assertiveness by taking part in planning and leading activities to build their leadership qualities. Children must also nurture a sense of pride through celebrating their achievements that build their confidence in the activities they perform.Counseling Theories Assignment Essay
Psychodynamic theories are therefore vital in the development of personal theory. A clear understanding of these theories makes it possible to focus on childhood traumas and gain a profound comprehension of activities that could have led to the current situations of the clients. As a result, an effective and efficient treatment plan is realized that enables the clients to free themselves from pessimisms related to previous experiences.
Behaviorism is attributed to the works of Ivan Pavlov and John Watson and is grounded on the conviction that actions are learned. Classical and operant conditioning and observational learning are forms of behavioral theories. Classical conditioning involves associating two different stimuli, thus producing a response (Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, 2016). Classical conditioning in humans can be seen in responses, such as nausea, sexual arousal, and anger. Classical conditioning is a crucial theory in counseling. For instance, a counselor can use a certain word to evoke a certain feeling in a client. For instance, the counselor may have the customer strongly imagine feeling calm whenever he thinks about the given word. Therefore, whenever the counselor repeats the word, the client evokes a positive state. A better understanding of this theory is very important in the development of personal theory and especially in determining what triggers individuals to behave the way they do in different situations. As a result, one can always anticipate a certain action in different situations.Counseling Theories Assignment Essay
In operant conditioning, reactions are measured by magnitudes. The probability of a certain reaction happening is either amplified or abridged by reinforcement or a punishment. Reinforcement increases conduct while punishment decreases a certain performance. Positive and negative reinforcements are the two types of responses. Positive reinforcement involves the escalation of a decent incentive to maintain the reactions. For instance, promoting workers for a job well done makes them work extra hard (Knopfelmarcher, 2007). On the other hand, negative reinforcement involves the removal of a negative consequence to increase behavior. For instance, an employer offering an employee a day off instead of giving a tangible reward. Punishment is also a part of operant conditioning. Positive punishment involves the use of an unwanted incentive after a reaction so that the response can be reduced or eradicated. For instance, jailing an individual for breaking the law. Negative punishment, on the other hand, involves removing a desirable response so that the response will not occur. For instance, denying children the chance to watch cartoons for disobedience so that they may start obeying.
Therefore, the incorporation of operant conditioning in the development of a personal theory is vital. For instance, the application of contingency management in counseling proves very effective and efficient as the rules are clearly spelled out making it possible for all parties to obey. Besides, knowledge of contingency management gives insight on the importance of manipulating external consequences to increase the likelihood of desired behavior while minimizing undesired behavior and especially when dealing with individuals suffering from drug abuse. The importance of the application of the modeling method in the development of a personal theory is realized. In this method, clients are allowed to learn desirable behavior by watching other individuals perform them. In some instances, the therapist can also model the desired behavior which is very significant (Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, 2016). Adoption of this method makes it easier for clients to recall and practice what they saw hence increasing the chance of getting better. Extinction is another method of counseling which therapists use. It involves removing an individual from an environment that offers reinforcement. For instance, a drug addict can be removed from an area full of drug dealers and be taken to a rehabilitation center where there are no opportunities for abusing drugs. By taking away the opportunity for acquiring drugs, that the drug addict found rewarding, the unwanted behavior is extinguished.Counseling Theories Assignment Essay
This theory was developed by Aaron Beck and emphasizes on how persons’ reasoning can alter their spirits and conduct. The theory is of the notion that what individuals think influences how they feel, behave and react to their environments. The theory aims at getting rid of negative thoughts to improve individuals’ behavior and lives (Clint, Foundations of Cognitive Theory: A Concise Review, 2007). Cognitive counseling involves therapists working with individuals suffering from illnesses, such as depression and stress. The counselor and client collaborate in increasing abilities for recognizing and substituting inaccurate opinions and principles, eventually altering the related typical behavior towards them. This kind of therapy is problem-solving oriented and is focused on the present. For instance, individuals may fail in a test and may think that they are failures. The undesirable belief may generate a sequence, whereby the test that the individual failed is evaded and this act in itself may further strengthen the undesirable behavior. Cognitive counseling is also applied to a skill-building approach. For instance, by helping the client develop skills such as tolerance and patience independently is very crucial in the healing process. Therefore, clear knowledge of this theory is very helpful in the development of a personal theory. As a result of the knowledge acquired, one can advise clients to avoid negativity for the greater good.Counseling Theories Assignment Essay
These theories believe that individuals control their destinies. They emphasize on the aptitude of individuals to reason intentionally and sensibly, to regulate their natural desires, and to accomplish their dreams. In the humanistic view, persons are accountable for their lives and deeds and have the liberty and determination to alter their approaches and conduct. Humanistic counselors care most about the present and helping their clients achieve their highest potential. (Bland & DeRobertis, 2019)For instance, the adoption of existential therapy on a drug addict in the development of a personal theory is very substantial. Through this kind of therapy, drug addicts are able to increase their self-awareness and self-understanding (Bland & DeRobertis, 2019). Besides, the victims are able to improve on their relationships, love, caring, courage and creativity with family and friends. Also, therapists help persons find sense in the face of disquiet. This is made possible by selecting to reason and act sensibly and by facing undesirable inside feelings rather than outward forces. In a nutshell, individuals learn to make more meaningful decisions on life, creativity, and love, rather than allowing external forces to determine their behavior.
Counseling theories deliver an outline for honesty between comprehending and explanation, which are significant to realize results in the most operational and successful manner. Counseling theories are essential as they help inexperienced counselors to interpret clients’ thoughts, behavior, and feelings through which a proper treatment plan is realized. According to Sigmund Freud, there exist unconscious forces that control individual behavior. Besides, psychodynamic theories are important in counseling. For instance, through these theories, clients are advised to focus on childhood traumas to gain a profound comprehension of activities that could have led to their current situations. As a result, the clients can free themselves from pessimism related to previous experiences. Besides, these theories assist counselors can understand what their clients are suffering from and hence realize the best treatment plan for their clients.Counseling Theories Assignment Essay
Operant conditioning plays a pivotal role in counseling. The counselor may apply contingency management where the therapist develops the goals of behavior change, reinforcements and the rewards that will be received and consequences if the client fails to meet the set goals. If the clients achieve the set goals, they are rewarded and are punished if they break the rules. Cognitive counseling, on the other hand, involves therapists working with individuals suffering from illnesses, such as depression and stress. Besides, the humanistic approach emphasizes on the aptitude of individuals to reason intentionally and sensibly, to regulate their natural desires, and to accomplish their dreams. In the humanistic view, persons are accountable for their lives and deeds and have the liberty and determination to alter their approaches and conduct. The humanistic approach is crucial in counseling. Humanistic counselors care most about the present and help their clients achieve their highest potential. For instance, a counselor can employ existential therapy on a drug addict. Through this kind of therapy, drug addicts can be able to increase their self-awareness and self-understanding.Counseling Theories Assignment Essay